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The Lockheed L-188 Electra

The Lockheed L-188 Electra

1. Design Origins:

Transition periods sometimes prompt transition solutions. During the 1950s, the piston airliner, in the form of the Douglas DC-6 and DC-7 and the Lockheed L-649/749 and -1040 Constellations, were moving toward their technological peaks, yet the pure-jet engine, other than that powering the ill-fated de Havilland DH.106 Comet I and emerging military aircraft, had yet to reach commercial aviation maturity. The compromise, at least in terms of speed, seemed to be the turboprop engine, which combined elements of both and had already been introduced by the Vickers Viscount in the UK.

It was during this period-specifically 1954-that American Airlines, supported by interest from Eastern, submitted design specifications for what it considered a new class of airliner. Those included a greater than 400-mph cruise speed, profitable operations on sectors ranging from 100 to 2,700 miles, a passenger capacity of at least 65, and the type of short-field performance that would enable it to serve all of the country’s 100 major airports.

In short, it sought greater speed, comfort, and economy than that offered by the current generation of quad-engine piston transports, but that could operate multi-sector flights without requiring enroute refueling and attain profitability with load factors as low as 50 percent.

“American and Eastern had demanded a plane equally adept at short- and long-haul operations,” according to Robert J. Serling in “The Electra Story: Aviation’s Greatest Mystery” (Bantam Books, 1963, p. 15). “This was mostly achieved by the thirteen-and-a-half-foot props, which swept their mighty air stream over all but nine feet of the wing area.”

Toward that end, Lockheed elected to employ the same C-130 Hercules design team and Allison T-56 engines that powered the type, creating the US’s first turboprop-powered airliner, the L-188.

“Lockheed opened America’s commercial jet era by hanging a propeller on the jet engine,” according to Jim Upton in “Lockheed L-188 Electra” (Specialty Press Publishers and Wholesalers, 1999, p. 7). “Research left Lockheed convinced that, while jets without propellers (would be) excellent on long-range fights, airlines would be better served by having an effective vehicle for segments which historically showed little or no profit-(that is), short to medium routes.”

The aircraft was almost the product of an equation which read: “Jet power + propeller efficiency = proper performance and economy.”

Aside from its design team and powerplant, it also shared another aspect of the manufacturer’s lineage: its name. Ensuring that its products would bear the designation of a star, as had occurred during the 1920s and 1930s with names such as “Orion,” “Vega,” “Sirius,” and “Altair,” it would borrow the nomenclature of its twin piston engine L-10 Electra, L-12 Electra Junior, and L-14 Super Electra.

Eastern and American respectively placed orders for 40 and 35 L-188 second generation Electras in 1955.

  1. Design Features:

“(The Lockheed L-188 Electra) has a purposeful and powerful profile,” according to veteran American Airlines Captain Arthur Weidman, who had flown DC-3s, Convairliners, DC-6s, and DC-7s. “The nose slopes downward sharply to provide good forward visibility on the ground and in the air. Then, her lines go straight back along a perfectly cylindrical fuselage to give her a wider cross section than the DC-7… There is a graceful upsweep to its dorsal fin and rudder, effecting a sleek, trim, streamlined look. Slender nacelles jut forward like giant probes, offering a minimum of frontal resistance.”

With a 104.6-foot-long and 11.4-foot-diameter fuselage, the Electra featured large, square passenger windows.

One of the keys to its design was its wing. Appearing proportionately too short in span for the aircraft it supported, mounted with considerable dihedral, and sporting square tips, it was only 5.5 feet shorter than the fuselage itself, at 99 feet in length, and offered both a low-drag and -aspect ratio. Its trailing edge flaps ran from the fuselage root to the ailerons, or just beyond the outer engines’ exhaust nozzles, and almost 80 percent of its span was subjected to lift-generating prop wash, facilitating low-speed handling.

Power was provided by four 3,750-eshp (equivalent shaft horse power) Allison 501-D13 turboprops, which turned 13.6-foot-diameter, single-rotation, hydraulically-controlled, constant-speed, reversible pitch, four-bladed propellers. Compared to the pure-jet engine, the prop jet featured reduction gear that drove both the propeller and additional gas turbine section stages, resulting in a 90:10 thrust production ratio, or 90 percent created by the propeller and ten percent by the exhaust gases.

The ailerons, elevator, and rudder were operated by push-pull, tube-linked hydraulic booster units, while engine compressor bleed air provided anti-icing of all control surfaces.

The aircraft’s 5,520-US gallon fuel capacity was stored in four wing integral tanks, divided into the two, 1,100-gallon inboard and two 1,660-gallon outboard ones. In-flight fuel cross-feeding was only necessary on long-range sectors exceeding 1,800 miles.

The L-188 rested on a twin-wheeled, hydraulically actuated, forward-retracting tricycle undercarriage, which had the provision for gravity free-fall extension in the event of either hydraulic or electrical system failures.

Integral, fuselage extendable air stairs, along with other self-contained features and its low-to-ground, support equipment-independent position, facilitated turn-arounds at transit stations where fueling was not required in as little as 12 minutes.

The Electra was standardly flown by a three-person cockpit crew, with a duplicate throttle quadrant on the captain’s and first officer’s sides and the flight engineer’s station behind both in the center on domestic routes, while a fourth crew member, the navigator, was employed on international ones and positioned on the aft, left side, occupying the location of the otherwise observer’s eat.

Although passenger cabin configurations and densities varied according to the operator, Lockheed initially offered several options, facilitated by the installation of seat tracks. Either 66 four-abreast, 20-inch-wide seats at a 38-inch pitch with a 26-inch aisle or 85 five-abreast, 18-inch-wide ones with a 17-inch aisle could be installed, both of which also featured a six-place, tail-located lounge arranged in a semi-circular configuration. Installation of aft, as well as the standard mid, lavatory reduced the capacity to 83, while the maximum was 99 five-abreast in 20 rows. Alternatively, 127 passengers in a six-abreast, 32-inch pitch configuration was available, but required structural modifications and additional exits to meet evacuation criteria.

A maximum, 6.55-psi differential, achieved by two engine-driven superchargers, provided cabin pressurization and temperature was maintained by radiant heating.

Baggage, cargo, and mail were carried in two underfloor, starboard door-accessed holds.

Featuring a 113,000-pound maximum takeoff weight, the initial, domestic L-188A version had a 2,200-mile range and attained a 373-mph cruise and 448-mph maximum speed.

“There were… two basic versions, the L-188A for US domestic operation, with a fuel capacity of 5,520 US gallons, and the L-188C with 900 US gallons more fuel and a higher gross weight of 116,000 pounds… ,” according to Michael Hardy in World Civil Aircraft since 1945 (Charles Scribner’s Sons 1979, p. 93).

Its range was 3,500 miles.

  1. Test Flights:

Piloted by Captain Herman “Fish” Salmon, First Officer Roy Wimmer, Flight Engineer Laurie Hallard, and Flight Test Engineer Bill Spreurer, the L-188 Electra made its inaugural flight from the Lockheed Air Terminal in Burbank, California, on December 6, 1957, after which Spreurer commented, “The smoothness and quietness of the aircraft (were immediately apparent). The vibration level was very low and the engines were so quiet that you could hear the chase aircraft.”

After a four-airplane, 655-hour flight test program, the type was certified on August 12, 1958, five weeks ahead of schedule, permitting first delivery of aircraft 1007 to launch customer Eastern Airlines two months later, on October 8.

Accolades of the Electra’s design and performance capabilities accrued, as pronounced by the Air Line Pilots Association evaluation committee.

“Members were very much impressed with the rapid power application possible and with the immediate airplane response in climb performance,” they proclaimed. “It definitely exceeded their balked landing and pull-out.

“High-speed stability is good… good control response at touchdown speeds… responded well to the flare-out on landing… crosswind take off and landing characteristics to be most normal…

“The stall characteristics of this airplane in all configurations was exceptionally good. There was no fall-off on one wing or any other adverse tendencies.

“This committee is more than reasonably confident that the manufacturers, the operators, the pilots, and the public will be satisfied with the record of safety, efficiency, and economy which will be achieved.”

American Airlines Captain Arthur Weidman expanded upon this after his first flight in the type.

“Electra is every inch a pilot’s airplane,” he wrote in Douglas J. Ingells’ “L-1011 TriStar and the Lockheed Story” (Aero Publishers, Inc., 1973, p. 124.) His initial impression was that the aircraft exuded “functional beauty.”

Despite its powerful prop-jet turbines, he found it quieter during taxi and acceleration in the cockpit than in comparable pistonliners.

“… It got off in a hurry and climbed rapidly,” he stated. “Obviously, there was a lot of power packed into her streamlined nacelles (and) thrust to spare in the noticeably wide, flat blades of the propellers (p. 127).

A throttle advance to the “flight regime” stage initiated the aircraft’s acceleration roll at a 13,820-rpm speed of its engines, causing the L-188 to achieve its rotation “before it would occur in a Piper Cub. Power is there and speaks through performance.

“The low sound and vibration level make the take off seem effortless and the airplane lifts off… ” he continued (p. 129). “The thumping vibration of piston engines and the long, slow climb out are things of the past.”

Contrary to the throttles on other aircraft, those on the Electra controlled the blade angle, not the engine’s rotations, which remained constant throughout all flight phases. Thrust changes therefore only depended upon changes to their pitch, but needed to be coupled with elevator inputs.

Climbs equaled 2,200 to 2,500-fpm and speeds exceeded 400 mph.

Lift and wing efficiency were considerably enhanced by the prop wash over the upper surface.

“She responds to control actions more like a fighter than a sixty-ton airliner,” he commented (p. 129).

The aircraft’s power reserve was almost astronomical: it could climb on any two engines and maintain altitude on any one.

Landing only required ground contact and a short deceleration roll, aided by brake applications and the reversible pitch of the propellers.

  1. Airline Operations:

First and largest of the 14 original operators with 34 L-188As and six L-188Cs, Eastern Airlines inaugurated the type into scheduled service on January 12, 1959, configured for 66 single-class passengers, along with the aft, six-place lounge, on several dual-sector routes, including New York (Idlewild)-Atlanta-Tampa, Miami-New York-Montreal, and Detroit-Cleveland-Miami. It was both the air shuttle’s first- and second-section (to the DC-9) aircraft between 1965 and 1977, linking La Guardia with Boston and Washington.

American, the second operator with 35 L-188As, inaugurated its Electra service the same day as Eastern on the New York-La Guardia to Chicago-Midway route.

National Airlines, which had ordered 15 L-188As, offered a 72-passenger and six-seat lounge interior and connected New York (Idlewild) with Miami as of April 23, 1959.

Braniff, which offered a similar 75/6 arrangement, served the Texas cities of Dallas, Houston, and San Antonio from New York-Idlewild and Chicago-Midway airports.

“Advertised as ‘a totally new dimension in jet-age travel,’ Western Airlines began Electra-jet service on August 1, 1959 between the West Coast cities of Los Angeles, San Francisco, Portland, and Seattle,” according to John Proctor, Mike Machat, and Craig Kodera in “From Props to Jets: Commercial Aviation’s Transition to the Jet Age” (Specialty Press, 2010, p. 91). “Two months later turboprop flights were added to Salt Lake City, Denver, and Minneapolis, as the fleet expanded to five 66-seat, first class-configured airplanes. Seven more Electras followed with the last delivered in 96-seat, all-coach layouts, lacking a lounge.”

Inaugurating service on September 18, 1959 with the first of 18 72-seat L-188Cs, Northwest served its Minneapolis fight base with it, along with operating a transcontinental segment from New York-Idlewild to Seattle.

KLM Royal Dutch Airlines, with 12 67-passenger international L-188Cs, became the only European operator of the Electra, inaugurating it into service on December 9, 1959 on routes such as Amsterdam-Dusseldorf-Vienna, Amsterdam-Frankfurt-Budapest, and those to the Middle East. Its aircraft featured the rounded-tip Hamilton Standard propellers and cockpit navigator’s stations.

The type was also operated as far afield as Hong Kong, Indonesia, and Australia with, respectively, the likes of Cathay Pacific, Garuda, and Qantas.

  1. Braniff Flight 542:

While the conclusion of the Air Line Pilots Association concerning the fact that the Electra’s “record of safety, efficiency, and economy will be achieved” was optimistically predictive, the first of its three tenets was, in the event, not realized.

Scheduled to operate the multi-sector route from Houston to New York with intermediate stops in Dallas and Washington as Braniff Flight 542, aircraft N-9705C, the carrier’s fifth L-188A-which itself had only been delivered two days earlier-accepted its 28 passengers on the warm, humid night of September 29, 1959. There was no hint as to the airplane’s fate. Or was there?

Of the six crew members aboard, First Officer Dan Hallowell commented to an Allison representative before departure, “This aircraft trims up funny.” Hallowell could not elaborate, nor did the representative understand his implications. The aircraft’s logbook noted no maintenance, trim-related anomalies. Perhaps it was nothing more than an uneasy, unexplainable feeling.

Divorcing itself from the runway at 2244, the Electra reached its assigned, 15,000-foot altitude 13 minutes later, at 2300, maintaining a 275-knot speed on its relatively short sector to Dallas.

After reporting its position over Leona, Texas, five minutes later, it was instructed, “Request you now monitor Fort Worth on a frequency of 120.8,” which was recorded in the logbook as “Transmission completed, 2307.”

It was its last.

The subsequent event was heard before it was seen by the tiny town of Buffalo, Texas, as most of its inhabitants had already retired for the night. It was an assault of the senses. Shrills and deafening whistles, of varying pitches, preceded a faint roar that culminated in a thunderous cacophony. Like an exploding bomb, it next visually manifested itself as tornadoes of heavy metal shards, fractured fragments of some considerably sized craft. Finally, it entered the nostrils as rain reeking of jet-propelling kerosene, all remnants of Braniff Flight 542 and all at a time when almost 100 L-188s routinely carried 20,000 daily passengers.

Although witnesses on the ground from the predominantly farmland area described various, pre-impact sounds, perhaps the most accurate of them came not from humans, but from canines, when a farmer observed, “When the sound came, every coon dog for miles around started howling.” Why did it affect them so severely?

Reflected on the ground, to a degree, was the aftermath image of what must have occurred in the air, of what had sparked the airliner’s plummet and disintegration. A crater apparently bored by its nose contained the forward fuselage section and a few seats, dismembered from the rest of its body, and behind it, first at periodic feet, and then mile, locations, were its remnants: the center cabin at 225 feet; the vertical tail, rudder, inboard stabilizers, and tail cone at 230 feet; a large section of the right wing at 1,760 feet; the starboard stabilizer at 2,020 feet; the port stabilizer at 4,080 feet; the number four engine nacelle covering at 5,300 feet; the left wing, number two engine nacelle covering and propeller, and number four engine at 8,640 feet; the number one propeller and gear box at 9,600 feet; and a nine-inch section of the number two fuel tank’s hydraulic line at 2.3 miles. Indeed, a 17-mile linear pattern of wreckage stretched from the crater to the LEONA VOR.

Painstaking reconstruction revealed that the Electra had shed its left wing, at which point fire erupted and the limbless airplane dove earthward, shattering from the gravity-induced forces.

Part of the investigation focused on ground witness accounts and claims about the high-pitched sound in the sky before they were even aware of its origin, indicating, perhaps, that the turning propellers had for some reason reached supersonic speeds. The physiological responses of the collective coon dogs was also not to be discounted, since they reacted as if the sound had pierced their ears. But how and why? And what, if anything, did all of this have to do with the first officer’s pre-departure comment about the airplane’s “funny trim?” Could this have been the result of an autopilot or stabilizer malfunction or even a fuel imbalance?

And what was the significance of the damage marks that revealed that the number one propeller had whirled at an angle of up to 35 degrees from its normal plane of rotation? Would it not have been the natural result of the stresses and strains of the left wing as it tore off? Or was it the cause?

Yet exhaustive investigation and analysis revealed no definitive answer-no probable cause-and hence no design modifications could be recommended to correct the undetermined error or flaw.

By March 17, 1960, it was concluded that only the unlikely repeat of the Braniff Electra accident could pinpoint the reason for its demise and the loss of all on board. And on that day, that is exactly what occurred.

  1. Northwest Flight 710:

Aircraft N-122US was ironically the first L-188C delivered to Northwest Airlines and had logged fewer than 1,800 hours, but it would not be in service for long. Operating as Flight 710 on March 17, 1960, it had covered the first of its two segments, from Minneapolis to Chicago-Midway, in one hour, fur minutes; however, it was quickly airborne again, now destined for Miami, at 1438 local time, at a 105,000-pound gross weight, reaching 18,000 feet and advising Indianapolis Center seven minutes later that it was over Millford, Illinois.

Proceeding to its next radio checkpoint of Scotland, Indiana, at 1513, it advised, “Maintaining 18,000 and estimating Bowling Green (Kentucky) at 1525.”

Fifteen minutes later, Flight 710 was instructed to contact Memphis Center on frequency 124.6, to which it replied, “Acknowledged.” It was the last transmission received.

The weather was clear, but, based upon the subsequent events, apparently not very cooperative. Penetrating the powerful, unpredictable phenomenon designated “clear air turbulence” (CAT), the Electra was allegedly reduced to a helpless victim, releasing two puffs of white smoke and then a huge black one as its fate was audibly registered as two, ground witness evidenced explosions.

Reduced to an airborne amputee, the airplane shed its right wing and retained little more than the stub of its left one. Initially oblivious, the limbless body continued in a straight-and-level path, but, unable to generate lift and helpless to create or correct a bank without ailerons, it was no longer able to tame one of the three axes of flight the Wright Brothers had so scientifically identified 57 years earlier and succumbed to the instability of air above and the pull of gravity below.

Nosing over, trailing smoke, and shedding structure, it dove like an air-to-ground missile, plunging into a soybean field near Tell City, Indiana, at 618 mph. Gauging snow, dirt, mud, and vegetation, it more than adequately demonstrated Newton’s Third Law of Motion-“for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction”-when the earth ricocheted and spat chunks of itself 250 feet into the air.

What remained was a 30-by-40-foot wide, 12-foot deep crater of smoldering smoke, molecular disintegration, and the obliteration of the 63 passengers and crew on board, since not a single recognizable body was ever found.

Could clear air turbulence have been the culprit?

The only significant piece of wreckage was later discovered in the crater itself.

“The huge fuselage had telescoped and compressed into a mass of molten metal only one-third its overall length,” wrote Serling in “The Electra Story: Aviation’s Greatest Mystery” (op. cit., p. 49). “Of the 63 occupants, there was not enough left to identify-eventually-more than seven bodies. The aluminum fuselage that was their coffin was so hot that five days later a steam shovel picked up pieces that still were burning.”

11,291 feet from the impact point was the severed right wing. The clues were strangely reminiscent of the Braniff accident near Buffalo, Texas. What was the commonality between the two?

One aspect differed. Clear air turbulence and a more than 100-mph jet stream at 18,000 feet, the Northwest flight’s altitude, had intercepted its flight path at a 90-degree angle and had affected other aircraft in the vicinity at the time. But it begged the question: why, if it had been so severe, had they not succumbed to a similar fate?

Clear air turbulence for all its properties, had suddenly become visible to the Federal Aviation Agency. Although the L-188 had more than exceeded its structural expectations, it differed from other propeller airliners, since it represented, to a degree, transition technology: it combined traditional props with still-untraditional turbines, enabling it to eclipse speed boundaries between those of, say, the DC-6 and the emerging military jets.

Like the adolescent who tries to grow up too fast, perhaps it had entered a realm for which it was not sufficiently ready, as the Comet had at high-altitude regions with insufficiently thick fuselage skin gauges. Combined with CAT, perhaps it had proved catastrophic.

Fighting to ground the aircraft, yet unable to identify the definitive cause, the FAA elected to keep the Electra in the sky, albeit at an initially imposed 275-knot speed restriction, coupled with the deactivation of its autopilots and the installation of impact-sustainable flight recorders. When it was realized that this had been the speed of the Braniff aircraft, it was further reduced to 225 knots.

What exactly was happening? The aircraft had, after all, been subjected to rigorous, pre-certification tests.

“… (But) nowhere in the Electra blueprints-which, laid end to end, would stretch forty miles-nowhere in the reports of thousands of hours of ground and test flights-nowhere in 20,000 separate design studies or 7,000 pages of mathematical calculations-was there any mention of a scientific phenomenon known as ‘whirl mode,'” Serling pointed out (Ibid, p. 19).

  1. Mystery Solved:

Both laboratory (theoretical) and airborne (practical) exploration and analysis, parts of the Lockheed Electra Achievement Program or LEAP, probed the mystery behind the Braniff and Northwest accidents, and entailed two daily, ten-hour flights, in which various loads, parameters, and speeds were explored, even red-line eclipsing ones. Initially, they only proved the L-188’s design integrity, until a clue, which was not even interpretable, finally surfaced.

Energy propagates and exerts its effects at its final destination. In the Electra’s case, it was ascertained that heavy motion loads had produced a far greater effect on its outboard engine nacelles during severe turbulence penetration than structural tests had revealed, producing a wing bending force from there to the tips, as proven during flight tests over the California mountains that produced tornado-strength updrafts called the “Sierra waves.” The turbulence they created wreaked havoc with the aircraft’s flight controls and structure.

Progressive damage from the number one and number four engines of, respectively, the Braniff and Northwest aircraft had been the result of uncontrolled flutter. Diagonal, saw-tooth fractures indicated the presence of pre-structural failure–cyclic, repetitive, and powerful oscillations—but what could not be answered was why the lack of turbulence over Buffalo, Texas, had caused the same phenomenon as that over Tell City, Indiana. What exactly had sparked the same destructive flutter in the atmospheric-dissimilar mishaps?

Focus next shifted from the weather to the engine nacelles themselves, which opposed each other in installation on the respective Electras involved.

Analyses of what remained of the eight propellers indicated that that turned by engine number one on the Braniff aircraft had, for some reason, wobbled. An over-speed catalyst or condition had caused the tips to reach sonic velocities and with that realization the light of truth had been lit. Both accidents had been caused by propeller whirl mode.

Because a propeller has gyroscopic tendencies, it remains in its plane of rotation until and unless it is displaced by an external source, causing it to adhere to Newton’s “equal and opposite reaction” law. In this case, the propeller continued to rotate in one direction, while the induced whirl mode removed it from its uniform place of rotation and caused it to vibrate in a different one.

If not dampened, removed, or reversed, it develops a wildly wobbling gyroscope, transmitting its energy to that which it is mounted-like an illness that spreads and infects everything in its path-in this case, the wing-or, more precisely, the outer wing. In the Braniff accident, it was the left one. In the Northwest accident, it was the right one.

A strut fairing failure, occurring in the number four engine of the latter Electra, eliminated the restraint that had restricted the engine from moving upward and to the left, resulting in abnormal, omni-directional loads, which caused the engine to experience large cycle motions. These ultimately cracked the propeller’s reduction gear box.

The result, as demonstrated by a one-eighth scale L-188 model in a NASA Langley wind tunnel, was expressed as follows.

“With simulated damage in the nacelle area, propeller auto-precession, a self-sustained, wobbling motion of the spinning propeller involving coupling of gyroscopic and aerodynamic forces, occurred.”

The aircraft’s design flaw did not necessarily entail the inadequate strength of the nacelle structure, but its lack of sufficient stiffening. Affected by previous damage, it developed into a chain reaction of destruction. After its engine had wobbled, so, too, had its propeller and, as its motion was transmitted to the outer wing, it flexed, fluttered, and snapped, leaving the limbless fuselage to the grip of gravity.

Although clear air turbulence had obviously been the spark that lit the chain reaction in the Northwest accident, it could only be surmised that a hard landing, not noted in the logbook, had served as the similar ignition in the Braniff one. Undetected, could this early, not yet catastrophic wobble have not been the reason behind the first officer’s comment that the airplane had “trimmed funny?”

And dogs do not lie, coon or otherwise. As the supersonic speed of the propeller tips emitted painful pitches that virtually pierced their hypersensitive ears, they reacted with a collective howl.

A $25 million, Lockheed financed modification program, applied to both in-service and assembly line aircraft, entailed structural improvements, which resulted in a seven-percent increase in stiffness, and the installation of top and bottom struts, designated “vibration isolators,” were installed in the engine’s reduction gearbox. Its air inlet was relocated and new, stronger engine mounts prevented lateral movements, all resulting in the addition of 1,400 pounds of structural weight.

The aircraft was FAA recertified on December 30, 1960 and, in order to increase public confidence, which had understandably been marred as a result of the accidents, airlines redesignated their modified aircraft “Electra IIs” and “Super Electras.”

  1. Program Sunset:

The last three of the 170 L-188As and -Cs produced, registered PK-GLA, -GLB, and -GLC, were acquired by Garuda Indonesian Airways, while the type was given a second lease on life as Central and South American airliners, cargo liners, fire bombers, and as the platform of the foreshortened P-3C Orion antisubmarine patrol aircraft. Alaska-based Reeve Aleutian Airways operated three pure-passenger and combi examples on scheduled services as late as the turn-of-the-century, demonstrating the type’s ruggedness and reliability.

But, as a main line bridge between the piston and pure-jet eras, its crossing was brief and it was quickly replaced by the likes of the Sud-Aviation SE.210 Caravelle, the Boeing 727-100, and the Douglas DC-9-10 and -30 by the mid-1960s.


Hardy, Michael. “World Civil Aircraft since 1945.” New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1979.

Ingells, Douglas J. “L-1011 TriStar and the Lockheed Story.” Fallbrook, California: Aero Publishers, Inc., 1973.

Proctor, John; Machat, Mike; and Kodera, Craig. “From Props to Jets: Commercial Aviation’s Transition to the Jet Age, 1952-1962.” North Branch, Minnesota: Specialty Press, 2010.

Serling, Robert J. “The Electra Story: Aviation’s Greatest Mystery.” New York: Bantam Books, 1963.

Upton, Jim. “Lockheed L-188 Electra.” North Branch, Minnesota: Specialty Press Publishers and Wholesalers, 1999.

Source by Robert Waldvogel

Weight Training For Strength and Power For Track Sprinters and Power Athletes

Weight Training For Strength and Power For Track Sprinters and Power Athletes

Athletes require strength-speed or speed-strength to be successful in track sprints.  Strength conditioning for athletes requires a sound strength programme.  Strength drills must much the angles and positions experienced by an athlete when performing the event.  Coaches must devise drills that allow a sprinter to apply power effectively.  A Strength training program for sprinters and other power athletes, must be planned with the following in mind.


Age of athlete

Training age

Training time

Strength requirements

Competition dates

This is not an exhaustive list but it’s a start.  Strength training can consist of resistance work, plyometrics, medicine ball work and body weight exercises to develop body strength. A coach can plan or periodise a strength training program by following how the body gains strength naturally.  As humans grow the body initially attains muscle mass, then strength and then power.  Following this pattern of development is an efficient way of planning strength training, for sprinters. 

Hypertrophy phase

This phase can be 4-10 weeks long.  The shorter phases suit sprinters because longer phases cause excess body mass to be gained.  Strength training for muscle mass should be done specifically for the hamstrings and quadriceps.  A weight of 60-75% of the maximum lifted for an exercise should be used.  Repetitions of 8-12 lifts should be done with 1-2 minutes recovery in between.  This will build muscle mass over time.  Sets of 3-5 should be completed. Training should be done 3 times a week

Maximum strength phase

This phase can be 4-6 weeks long.  During this time the aim is to acquire an increase in strength by using the newly developed muscle acquired during the hypertrophy phase.  The intensity should fall between 75-95% intensity.  Repetitions should be kept to a minimum.  2-3 repetitions in a set is ideal. 3-5 minutes is sufficient rest between sets.  Sets of 3-5 should be the maximum. Training should be completed twice a week.

Power phase

This phase can last 4-6 weeks long.  During this phase the aim is to teach the muscles to contract explosively and with greater force.  The intensity of lifts is a mix of high loads and smaller loads.  70% of lifts work should be done at an intensity of 80% of the maximal lift with repetitions kept to a minimum of 3-5.  Recovery should be 3-5 minutes.  Sets of 4 should be the maximum. Training should be completed 3 times a week. 

Maintenance phase

During the maintenance phase, a small volume of resistance work is needed to keep the gains made in the previous phases.  The maintenance phase is similar to the power phase with the exception that only 70% of the volume from the power phase is needed.  Training can be done twice a week.

To support this type of training, stretching must be done after sessions and on recovery days.  A balanced diet with adequate protein must be followed.

Keywords and their meanings

Repetitions:  The number of times an exercise is lifted or completed.

Set:  This is made up of lifts or repetitions of an exercise.

Recovery:  The amount of minutes rest between a set.

Source by Martey Newman

Blast Your Bench Press – Can You Really Add 50 Lbs to Your Bench Press in 3 Weeks?

Blast Your Bench Press – Can You Really Add 50 Lbs to Your Bench Press in 3 Weeks?

Blast Your Bench program promises to add 50 lbs to your bench. And to make it even more amazing claim, you should be able to do so in just 3 short weeks. Sounds too good to be true, doesn’t it?

If you are not familiar with Blast Your Bench routine, it is developed by Lee Hayward, a well-know strength coach. Of course, that itself is nothing new. There have been countless of bench press workouts developed and promoted by professionals and average Joe’s alike. And, just like Blast Your Bench program, they too promised amazing results in short time.

So the obvious questions you are now asking are – does Blast Your Bench delivers on its promise; and how is Blast Your Bench routine different from all the others. The short answers would be: Yes, it does deliver, and it is very different.

In fact, the success of Blast Your Bench program lies in the fact, that it is like no other out there. It breaks many rules that you are now probably recite like benching Bible. The biggest heresy of the program is in the frequency of the workouts. The program lasts only 3 weeks, but you workout your bench several times each week. The weights are heavy, the breaks are fairly short and the intensity will cause your body to scream in pain.

Remember the times when you just started out and you could see increase of your bench press strength grow exponentially literally from one day to the next one? It was due to the body being bombarded with new impulses that it never experienced before. And I’m sure you noticed, that the gains were dramatic, not slow and steady. And that’s what Blast Your Bench does to your body too.

It stimulates your body in just 3 weeks because the intensity is almost overwhelming and your body simply needs to adopt. Just like when you were a bench press beginner and every exercise gave your muscles an impulse it needed to adopt to by getting bigger and stronger. It itself is not a new concept, after all, short, but frequent and intensive workouts were successfully practiced in former Eastern Bloc. What makes Blast Your Bench concept unique is that it takes this concept and applies it only on one exercise – bench press.

So yes, it does work. Many lifters tried it with great success. What you need to realize though is, that you will be given precise instructions you need to follow. And trust me, although it is just for three weeks, the intensity will make it feel like eternity. But if you are intermediate to advanced bench presser and you truly commit yourself to the program, you indeed could add 50 lbs to your bench press. It’s 3 weeks only. The question is – are you hard core enough to go through this bench press hell?

Source by Paul V. Strong

Diabetes Starts With Weak Flabby Muscles

Diabetes Starts With Weak Flabby Muscles

Not very many people understand the importance of stable blood sugar levels. They are the very foundation of good health. Constantly high or wildly fluctuating levels can inflict enormous hidden damage to organs, tissues, and cells that come into contact with the excess glucose and the high levels of insulin produced to bring the level down. This damage can have serious long-term negative effects on health that can shave years or even decades off life-span.

We used to believe that only diabetics had to worry about their blood sugar levels but this is no longer so. Even if you are not diagnosed as a diabetic, you may still be on the borderline and poor blood sugar control can have a devastating effect on your health. The longer the time it remains out of control the shorter your life. You can even be in a pre-diabetic state for years and continue to progress to full-blown diabetes without even realizing it.

High blood sugar levels occur when your body is unable to use the sugar in the bloodstream. The body produces insulin to help move the sugar into the muscle cells to be used for energy. But if the muscle cells cannot use it they resist it and do not allow it to be taken up so it travels around the body affecting all the organ systems and doing damage to everything it touches.

The reason why the muscle cells cannot take up the energy is the fact that only eight out of ten people use their muscles enough with proper strengthening exercise. Our modern sedentary world allows our muscles to wither and shrink which means their energy needs are way below what they should be.

Fifty-odd years ago and beyond this modern-day problem that has now become epidemic hardly was ever heard about. Now it is becoming a major global health threat that is the fourth leading cause of death in our society. But you actually do not die from diabetes you die from the damage it does to sensitive tissues that trigger other diseases.

You may not realize it if you have a low amount of lean muscle tissue and your body composition (muscle/fat ratio) has become unbalanced you have an increased risk for ‘glucose resistance’ which increases your risk of diabetes. Without healthy toned muscle from proper physical activity, there is simply nowhere for the sugar converted from the food you eat to go

So the very easy thing to do to rectify this situation is to get started on a proper strength training program to help prevent or even manage diabetes. Your muscle tissue is the body’s largest reservoir requiring glucose uptake from the blood so its strength and health are paramount in controlling this deadly disease and weak flabby muscles will not do anything to help you avoid it.

This is such a simple thing to do to help your body keep itself healthy. Just 2-3 sessions each week of a proper strength training exercise with some effort put into them will go a very long way to helping you get and keep your blood sugar levels under control and reduce damage. It does not really matter if you do not like to exercise – that is irrelevant – it is non-negotiable and a far better option than taking toxic drugs that do nothing to fix the problem up at the base level.

You have the power to reverse pre-diabetes and banish it from your life forever and the place to start is your exercise program. As a bonus, you will get multiple other health benefits that will surprise and delight you as they show themselves and you will never want to stop.

Source by Carolyn Hansen

The Best Fat Loss Exercises For Women

The Best Fat Loss Exercises For Women

Ladies, in this article you will discover some of the best fat loss exercises for women. But if you want to lose fat and even get a flat belly it is time to cut out the crap. I am not going to tell you to do the exercises you will like. Perhaps the exercises may look a little bit different. And to be honest it wouldn’t surprise me if you end up in sweat after doing them. That is a good sign because the traditional fat burning exercises for women do look very easy, in fact they are but their intensity is far from high enough. There is a saying in life that is definitely true when it comes to fat burning. To get different results you will have to do things different. If you are a lazy person then this article is not for you, if you are motivated but are looking for some additional help then you will enjoy and benefit from this article.
High Intensity Interval Training One of the best fat burning exercises for women is HIIT or high intensity interval training. HIIT training is ten times more powerful then low intensity cardio training. With low intensity cardio training I mean jogging, walking, treadmill exercises and soon. HIIT workouts are performed at such a high level of intensity that your body will spend the rest of the day expending energy to recover. Yes you will definitely end up in sweat and maybe tears if you do this for the first time. Getting out of your comfort zone is the key to lose fat fast.
Weight training to get super lean One of the best exercises to lose fat fast for women is weight training. Most women unless they are bodybuilding don’t do weight lifting exercises to get super lean. This is a very if not the hugest mistake you can make. Most women who are following a traditional diet lose muscle weight and that is a crucial reason why conventional diets don’t work. Do not be afraid you will end up like a female bodybuilder this will not happen. In contradiction to cardio exercises weight training does not burn fat during the workout, during a weight lifting workout your body burns sugar. But after the weight lifting workout your body acts up like a non stop fat burning workout. No I’m not going to lie to you training with dumbbells once a week won’t do the work. You should implement weight training in your daily lifestyle. To lose fat fast follow a weight training workout at least 3 or 5 times per week.

So the best fat loss exercises for women are not the ones discussed in magazines orthe exercises you like the most but the exercises that are high in intensity.

Source by Frederik Smith

10 Awesome Bodyweight Exercises for Judo

10 Awesome Bodyweight Exercises for Judo

There are literally hundreds and hundreds of exercises out there. But which ones are will improve your performance on the mat. Here is a list of 10 fantastic body-weight exercises that will build strength, power and explosiveness for all Judokas.

Body-weight squats

Body-weight squats will develop strength and stability in the lower body. Strength in the legs is something the Japanese pride themselves on. That is one reason why they develop so much power when they execute a technique. Make sure when you are squatting that you get low enough so that your thighs are parallel to the floor. Drive through your heels, don’t fall backwards and maintain your balance.


One of the hardest and best body-weight exercises on the planet. Burpees develop leg power and upper body strength and when done as part of a circuit or in a Tabata interval will dramatically increase your fitness levels. Simply squat down, extend your legs out into a push up position, perform a push up, bring your legs back to a squatting position and proceed to explode upwards jumping as high as you can.


Whether it is traditional, close grip, wide grip, box, or scooping pushups the fact of the matter is that push-ups will give your upper body a strength boost. Having a strong upper body will result in you being able to create really good reactions when you fight which can assist in your throwing your opponent.

Chin ups

One of the hardest but most beneficial exercises in not just the bodyweight exercise category, but in strength training as well. The ability to pull your chin above a bar will greatly improve your strength and overall success on the mat. Whether it is close, wide or alternate grip chin ups, if you make chin ups a part of your regular gym programs you will not only get a stronger back but also have a greater strength when it comes to pulling your opponent off balance.

Rope climbs

Similar to chin-ups, the rope climb is one of the most beneficial exercises for judokas. The rope climb is utilized by all top level judo players due to the fact that it not only increase your arm, back and core strength but also increase your lactic acid buffer in your forearms and arms. This is a great attribute to have in the last few minutes of a judo match. If you are constantly climbing the rope week in, week out you will see an increase in your ability to not only grip fight hard, but grip fight for longer.

Elastic band open shuts

Judokas are constantly gripping and flexing the forearm and wrist muscles and as a result most have a muscle imbalance in forearms. This imbalance can lead to injuries such as RSI and tendinitis. Elastic band open shuts will slowly strengthen the opposing muscles (wrist and forearm ex-tensors) creating a muscle balance in the wrists and forearms. Simply wrap an elastic band around your fingers and open and close them for 50 reps a day for the first week and slowly increase week after week.

Core hold

Ab brace, prone hold, plank or bridge. This exercise has so many names and most the time it is performed incorrectly. To perform a Core holds properly assume a push-up position but rest on your elbows instead of your hands. Your hips should be parallel to the floor, do not drop your hips or raise them too high. Concentrate on your abdominal and lower back muscles and slowly bring your shoulder-blades together. Hold for desired time limit. If this becomes too easy slowly raise an arm and leg off the ground. This will make your core have to adjust slightly to compensate for the hips tilting.

Hanging leg raises

This seems like a simple exercise but is actually very difficult. Hang off a chin up bar and let your legs hang slightly off the floor. Contract your core muscles, slightly bend your knees and raise your feet as high as you can towards the bar. Try to avoid any excess swinging. If this is too difficult then raise your knees to your chest instead. Perform 4 sets of 15 repetitions.

Squat jumps

Similar to a bodyweight squat but once you reach the bottom of the squat explode upwards and jump slightly off the ground. Be sure to land on your toes and repeat for desired number of repetitions.

Clapping push-ups

Another exercise that seems easy but after two or three repetitions becomes quite difficult. Perform a push-up and instead of pushing your body back to the starting position explode upwards, getting some airtime long enough to clap your hands. Land and repeat for desired number of repetitions.

I recommend performing 11 seconds on and 9 seconds off for as many rounds as you can handle.

If you add any of these exercises to your strength and conditioning programs you will find that your Judo will improve. All of the above exercises are fantastic for Judo. Remember that Judo players should be training like Judo players so it is vital that the exercises you are performing in the gym are catering specifically for Judo.

Source by Matt D’Aquino

High School Wrestling: Bodyweight Training Tips

High School Wrestling: Bodyweight Training Tips

I first learned bodyweight exercises and calisthenics in gym class in elementary school. In gym class, we mainly did push-ups, sit-ups, and jumping jacks. I think we may have also learned to do burpees and mountain climbers. Our P.E. teacher even had us do bear crawls occasionally.

When I was a high school wrestler, we used bodyweight exercises and calisthenics as part of our warm-up and for conditioning purposes. We did push-ups, sit-ups, and jumping jacks as part of our warm-up. Occasionally we would get into a big circle and do calisthenics at the end of practice. We would go around the circle with each wrestler picking an exercise to do. In other practices, we would do a countdown. A countdown involved doing 10 reps of push-ups, sit-ups, jumping jacks, burpees, and laps around the wrestling room. Then we would do nine reps of each exercise. Then we would do eight reps of each exercise and so on until we had finished the complete countdown.

We did many wind sprints in the wrestling room and in the adjoining gym. Occasionally we did something called hit ’ems. We would run in place until our coach yelled, “Hit it!” Then we would drop flat on our stomachs and bounce back up as quickly as possible. I remember getting to lead this exercise myself once. Sometimes I would give us a rest while running in place and other times I would do a fast succession of hit ’ems immediately after we had just returned to our feet.

Some people make some rather large claims when it comes to bodyweight exercises. Some claim that bodyweight exercises are superior to lifting weights. Some believe the opposite. Some simply believe that resistance is resistance and that neither option is better than the other is when it comes to strength and conditioning. I think bodyweight exercises can certainly play a part in your overall wrestling conditioning.

Matt Furey

Matt Furey wrote a popular book entitled Combat Conditioning explaining the benefits of bodyweight training. Matt Furey is a former Division 2 NCAA Wrestling Champion and a Shuai Chiao Kung Fu World Champion. Therefore, it may be a good idea to read what he has to say on the subject of bodyweight training. He claims that bodyweight training is more functional (i.e. strength you can use). He reminds his reader to consider how much stronger and more flexible animals are when compared to humans. He also mentions how his mentor, wrestling legend Karl Gotch, told him that dancers have the strongest legs in the world. Dancers usually do bodyweight-only squats. Matt has many exercises and routines in his book, but he calls his three favorite exercises the Royal Court.

Matt Furey’s Royal Court:

  • Hindu squats
  • Hindu push-ups
  • Back bridge (if you are a wrestler I assume you already do some back bridging in practice every day)

Videos and descriptions of theses exercises are easily found with a simple online search.

Pavel Tsatsouline

Pavel Tsatsouline is a former Spetsnaz (Russian Special Forces) physical training instructor. He lives in the U.S. now and trains members of the U.S. military and law enforcement. He wrote a book called The Naked Warrior discussing his views on bodyweight training. He believes that bodyweight training can be beneficial when weights are not available. He mentions the strength and muscularity of gymnasts as an example of the value of bodyweight exercise. Most of us have seen how well built gymnasts are. Have you ever seen a gymnast do a planche? Have you ever seen a gymnast do an Iron Cross? They don’t lift weights and yet are incredibly strong. Christopher Sommer wrote an interesting article entitled Building an Olympic Body through Bodyweight Conditioning that you might be able to locate through an online search.

Three of Pavel’s Favorite Bodyweight Exercises:

  • One-legged squats (a.k.a. pistols)
  • One-armed push-ups
  • Pull-ups

Pavel doesn’t believe in doing sets of endless reps. He suggests making an exercise harder by manipulating the leverage involved. For instance, push-ups done with your feet elevated are harder than regular push-ups. Pavel also believes in Greasing the Groove (GTG). This involves doing a few reps several times throughout the day. Always leave a rep in the bank. Don’t work to failure. You could do push-ups several times a day, but for only a few reps at any given workout. Pavel believes in doing “ladders” as well. For example, you do a push-up and then rest a second. You stay in position and then you do two push-ups and rest two seconds. You keep going up the ladder until the reps start getting difficult. Then do another ladder.

Some of Pavel’s articles are easily found online.

Marcus Fisher Marcus Fisher advises MMA (mixed martial arts) athletes and grapplers on conditioning. He notes that some very successful fighters and wrestlers have used primarily bodyweight training instead of weight training. He doesn’t claim that bodyweight training is superior or that weight training is ineffective, but he believes bodyweight exercises can definitely be of benefit. He likes bodyweight workouts because they train the body to function as a single unit. Similar to Matt Furey, Marcus finds bodyweight training to be more functional.

Articles by Marcus Fisher are easily found online.

Advantages of Bodyweight Training:

  • Some trainers claim it builds more functional strength
  • Can be done almost anywhere
  • Requires no weights or machines

Disadvantages of Bodyweight Training:

  • May be hard to continually add resistance to some exercises
  • Building a strong posterior chain is difficult with bodyweight-only routines

Bodyweight Exercises to Consider:

  • Hindu squats
  • One-legged squats (pistols)
  • Push-ups
  • Plyo push-ups
  • Hindu push-ups
  • Dive bomber push-ups
  • One armed push-ups
  • Hand stand push-ups
  • Sit-ups
  • Crunches
  • Leg raises
  • Jumping jacks
  • Seal jacks
  • Shuffle jacks
  • Mountain climbers
  • Pull-ups
  • Standing broad jump
  • Slalom jumps
  • Sprints
  • Hill sprints
  • Bear crawls
  • Burpees

Special Note on Burpees

Many trainers believe that burpees are the best bodyweight exercise an athlete can do. According to Ross Enamait, “Burpees will condition your entire body. This exercise will develop strength, explosive power, and anaerobic endurance.” Burpees can also be combined with push-ups or pull-ups and other variations.

Matt Wiggins has a program called Working Class Cardio that utilizes burpees, jumping jacks, and other bodyweight exercises. The circuits used in his program also use dumbbells and medicine balls. He claims burpees can you give you a great aerobic workout and are extremely versatile. Matt is a bit of a burpee fanatic.

Conclusion: do burpees!

Bodyweight training is not magical. Weight lifting can and should be a part of your overall conditioning program. However, bodyweight training can definitely be a great complement to your conditioning program. Bodyweight exercises and calisthenics aren’t just for gym class and warming up. Try to include some bodyweight exercises in your training and see if your conditioning and your wrestling performance improve.

Source by Tharin Schwinefus

The Difference Between Supplements and Diet Pills

The Difference Between Supplements and Diet Pills

What is the difference between supplements and diet pills? It’s true that they are very alike; that’s probably why many people think that they are even the same thing! But, the benefits of each are distinct enough to be categorized as separate aids to dieting. The thing that remains the same for both of them is that they each contribute to the effectiveness of your weight loss, but differ in functionality (why they are taken).

Let’s begin explaining the difference between supplements and diet pills by describing what a supplement is and what it’s for. Supplements can be taken as a liquid (mixed in with a beverage), a capsule (to be swallowed as a pill) or a powder. The reason you would take a supplement is to boost a particular vitamin or mineral in your body that is deficient, and to support your body with certain things it needs to function, that your body may not be producing enough of naturally. For instance, let’s look at the most common vitamin calcium. The natural properties of this vitamin specialize in muscle growth. Now, if you find that you exercise very often, but fail to see much change in your muscle size, it is possible that your body suffers from slight calcium deficiency. In this case, you would take a calcium supplement to make up for your lower calcium levels. Doing so will boost the calcium in your body to its proper levels, helping you to get more out of your workouts and begin to see muscle growth at a faster rate. For another example, I’ll suggest potassium (the mineral that holds the number 3 spot of importance and amount in your body). The sole function of potassium is to regulate digestion and is what is burned to extract energy from the food you eat by converting certain elements. A situation where the need of a potassium supplement would arise can be found if you easily get fatigued when exercising. Taking a potassium supplement on its own however will not give you energy, it only helps deliver more energy to you when you eat something like a… what’s a good snack when exercising… a granola bar. When you take a break to get a bit of energy from your granola bar, you will find that little snack gives you much more to go on with the aid of a potassium supplement.

Continue reading “The Difference Between Supplements and Diet Pills”

Before You Try the TRX Workout

Before You Try the TRX Workout

On the off chance that the weight room is about as well known to you as a space station, TRX will be your new quality preparing closest companion. TRX makes different muscles of your own body to get solid. Yet, before you make the plunge, Crunch wellness director Mitch Rice separates the rudiments of this powerful workout rather than hammering weights Schwarzenegger-style, you’ll be pushing and pulling your way through a wellness schedule that is really fun. Come perceive how it functions!

Say farewell to barbells.

They’re cumbersome, difficult to move, and you won’t miss them.

Exercise centers are progressively offering these classes as a component of an extensive work out schedule. And (genuine insider tip) Crunch rec centers offer complimentary TRX classes-you simply need to inquire!

Come arranged for a test.

This may not be the ideal opportunity for short shorts or comfortable sweats. You ought to wear lightweight, non limiting, breathable TRX workout plan gear. Additionally, make a point to bring a towel and a lot of water in light of the fact that these body weight exercises will provoke you not at all like anything you’ve ever done some time recently.

You can begin at any level.

There’s space for stars and novices in this exercise. Another advantage of utilizing the TRX is that training can without much of a stretch be advanced or relapsed relying upon an individual’s capacities. On the off chance that you don’t have extraordinary parity, you can begin with a wide base of backing with two feet on the floor. As you get more grounded and your solidness enhances, you can work your way up to utilizing only a solitary leg.

Just do it. Spiderman workout

You’re not going to be dangling around, but rather you may feel a tiny bit like Spiderman. The TRX Suspension Trainer has made considerable progress since its parachute model planned by previous Navy SEAL Randy Hetrick. The new model is lightweight, versatile, and can dangle from an entryway mount, divider mount, or a mechanical S-Frame. Each TRX dangles from a primary carabiner that backings two six-foot straps with handles and foot supports on the closures. There are likewise cam clasps and change tabs to protract and abbreviate the straps on both sides.

The moves you’ll do in this TRX workout plan for beginners will likely be natural.

In any case, in the event that you have a cool mentor, they can likewise have magnificent names. Some understood resistance preparing workouts can be performed on the TRX, similar to push-ups, pull-ups, squats, jumps, and pushes. My most loved exercise is known as the New Kids on the Block. This is essentially a squat with a solitary arm line and 180 degree pivot. Begin with your feet shoulder width separated confronting the grapple point and one hand fussing the handle to the side of your mid-section with your shoulder withdrew. Twist both knees, broadening the arm holding the handle and dropping your butt down to the floor. Pivot from the hips going after the floor with your inverse hand. Drive through your heels, pulling from your arm holding the TRX. Complete the revolution and tap your inverse hand to the straps as high as would be prudent. NKOTB works your abdominal area, lower body, and your center. In the event that you truly need to push it, complete three arrangements of 15 reps on every side as quick as would be prudent.

Source by Alex Mario

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